March 18th, 1964 marks the 60th anniversary of the release date for the now-famous Getz/Gilberto album that was recorded a year earlier. Almost certainly the most popular album Creed Taylor produced, and also the one that generated more press coverage, more books, and more controversy than any other.

As a record, it propelled three people into the limelight; it also divided three people and, in the process, generated more folklore than any other album I own. I have for simplicity sake, also included answers, or researched opinions on some of the key questions raised by the success of, and people involved in the recording and production of the album. They are included here in a simple FAQ format.

As always, I try to find some unique content, and with this, I have. Many people know that Stan Getz and Astrud Gilberto made an appearance singing “The Girl From Ipanema” in the American summer movie “Get Yourself a College Girl.” Perhaps more importantly for the track, the Getz Quartet, featuring Gary Burton on vibraphone and Astrud Gilberto on vocals, were featured in an earlier film, “The Hanged Man,” with Robert Culp. A montage of their appearance and details are included below.

I also have included a mostly vocal only reduction of Astrud Gilberto singing the vocals used for the creation of the radio edit of “Girl From Ipanema”. Finally, I’ve also restored two 1965/66 radio programs that Astrud Gilberto and Stan Getz did for the domestic Volunteers In Service To America (VISTA) program. They are is embedded at the end and included on the ctproduced YouTube channel.

While reading it’s important to remember the music business is exactly that, a business. Could it be better? Yes. Should it be better? Yes.

© 2024, copyright – Mark Cathcart.

This post, like all of the material on is copyright. No unauthorized use, resale, or other publication apart from links or embeds is allowed without prior agreement. This represents a significant amount of original research, if you use it, please cite or provide trackbacks and/or credits. Also, agree, disagree, leave a comment.

Table of Contents

    Bossa Nova

    If Bossa Nova [1] doesn’t resonate with you, or if the 1960s are before your time, you’re not alone. My own musical recollections begin in 1967 when I was ten years-old. Prior to that, my exposure to music was limited to the selections of my parents. My father had a penchant for orchestras, Sinatra’s crooning, cinematic scores, and a touch of jazz. I still have his UK original mono pressing of Getz/Gilberto.

    The Getz/Gilberto album would be, in essence, the peak of Bossa Nova, rather than the start of it. The album would garner dozens of awards worldwide. Bossa nova as a musical style and genre is a simpler derivative of the samba with a more relaxed beat and includes other elements of Brazilian music. It had been growing in popularity in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil for some 5-years before catching on in the US following the Creed Taylor-produced, landmark Stan Getz/Charlie Byrd, 1962 album – “Jazz Samba” [2]

    With poetic lyrics mostly about love, bossa nova mirrored the optimism and relaxed censorship in Brazil during a period between military dictatorships.

    The earliest press mention I can find for “bossa nova” was in the Evening Vanguard, a Venice, California newspaper. On Saturday July 30th, 1960 on page-6 they ran a “Copley News Service” report entitled “Cuba Barely Bothers Brazil” written by Sol Biderman. In it Biderman says “They’re [Brazil] elated at the 5-1 victory of the Brazilian soccer team over Argentina, and they’re playing the latest record releases of “Bossa Nova,” a new trend in Brazilian popular music.” – By contrast, bossa nova didn’t show up in the New York Times until September 27th, 1962.

    Sid Frey and Audio-Fidelity

    While Getz, Charlie Byrd, and Creed Taylor are often considered the team that made the genre happen in America when recording and releasing “Jazz Samba”, there was also a cast of characters including Sid Frey, founder and president of Audio-Fidelity to thank as much as anyone. Taylor was more than familiar with Frey, having battled with Audio-Fidelity and Frey while at ABC-Paramount. The two companies had been in lockstep trying to release the first commercial stereo records in 1957 [3]

    Frey had been to Brazil as a US sailor in World War II, and he immersed himself in its culture. Especially the music. In 1962 he became obsessed with the Getz/Byrd “Jazz Samba” album. Frey worked with the Brazilian Ambassador to organize the November 21st 1962 Bossa Nova (New Brazilian Jazz) concert at Carnegie Hall. Announced by Frey during a somewhat frenetic September visit to Rio to invite artists to New York. The bossa nova emigration had started, heading north for the winter.

    The concert with variously João Gilberto, Anton Carlos Jobim, Luiz Bonfa, Oscar Castro-Neves’s ensemble. Agostinho dos Santos, Carlinhos Lyra, the Sergio Mendes Sextet, Roberto Menescal, Chico Feitosa, Normando Santos, Milton Banana and many others was a major publicity success despite all the problems that had led up to and during the concert.

    The concert was a 3,000 sellout and CBS, Radio Free America, BBC, Free Europe Radio, and Brazil’s Radio Bandeirantes – all caried coverage of the concert! [4] Ruy Castro notes in his book on bossa nova, perhaps Frey’s biggest wins was licensing many of the samba and bossa nova songs in North America to his publishing companies [5]Bossa Nova: The Story of the Brazilian Music That Seduced The World – Ruy Castro – Published by A Capella Books, 2000 – ISBN 1-55652-409-9, especially Eleventh Avenue Theatricals [6]

    Frey had a fight with Brazilian publisher Enrique Lebendiger in the pages of Variety magazine(and likely IRL) in the lead-up to the Carnegie Hall concert. Frey saying that American Jazz musicians had the right to alter bossa nova as they wish. Frey accused Brazilian publishers of acting to protect their own publishing industry, and increased their fees per song ten-fold in the last 6-months. For his part, Lebendiger asserts that American musicians and publishers were in essence changing bossa nova to avoid licensing and producing a substandard product.

    Lebendiger founded the leading Brazilian publisher “Fermata Do Brasil Ltda” [7] in 1954, they had offices in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro and were represented in the USA by Edward B. Marks Music Corporation. Fermata were a major publisher of American music in Latin America including Brazil and Argentina where they were the representatives for Jack Mills, Mills Music and many others. They also had a number of record labels. Fermata Do Brasil are still active today [8] [9]

    Gene Lees wrote an article for Hi-Fi Stereo Review, in it he claimed that Frey had not paid the musicians for their appearances at Carnegie Hall. Frey sued. Hi-Fi Stereo Review settled by letting Frey have free advertising in the magazine.

    The Argentinian Angle

    Castro is confused by the inclusion of Argentinian Lalo Schifrin for the Carnegie Hall concert, labelling him as one of four who “had about as much to do with bossa nova as John F. Kennedy, Nikita Khrushchev, Fidel Castro, and Dag Hammarskjold.” This though is easily explained.

    Apart from the fact that Schifrin had recorded a 1962 album for the afore mention Audio-Fidelity and Sid Frey called “Bossa Nova – New Brazilian Jazz” – Schifrin had arranged and recorded an album with female singer Pat Thomas. The initial tracks were laid down in New York in August of 1962 with the Sammy Lowe orchestra and arrangements, including the first English-language version of “Desafinado.”

    However, the version of “Desafinado” that would become a hit was rerecorded in September, arranged by Lalo Schifrin. It would quickly climb the charts, soon surpassing the Getz/Byrd instrumental version. In October, Thomas and Schifrin would go into a studio in Hollywood to record an album, leaving the remainder of the Lowe NYC tracks to be released in 1963 on Pat Thomas “Moody’s Mood” MGM album.

    Glaser, Avant, Thomas

    Pat Thomas version of ” Slightly Out of Tune (Desafinado)” would be Grammy nominated for “Best Solo Vocal Performance, Female” at the 5th Grammy awards, along with eight other Creed Taylor productions.

    Pat Thomas’ personal manager was Clarence Avant (yes, the black godfather). Argentinian Lalo Schifrin had been signed by Joe Glaser and his legendary Advanced Booking Company (A.B.C) – Glaser would form a partnership with Clarence Avant for personal management of Glaser’s artists through Avant’s company Avant-Garde Enterprises. Avant who would bring Jimmy Smith and Irene Reid, to MGM/Verve in 1963, was also Freddie Hubbard’s manager at the time.

    It’s likely that Glaser would hold high sway with senior MGM management due to his extensive contacts with the likes of Louis Armstrong and being the booking agent for Dizzy, Duke Ellington, Sarah Vaughan, Lionel Hampton, Billie Holiday, and a seventeen-year-old Barbra Streisand [10]The early 1960’s were a boom time for the modern Las Vegas, Ella Fitzgerald, the a Verve artist, as well as Glaser’s artists would make regular appearances in ‘Vegas and films of … Continue reading

    For the December 1962 Christmas releases, bossa nova albums were released by anyone who could get studio time: Zoot Sims & His Orchestra(Colpix), Quincy Jones and His Big Band(Mercury), the Paul Winter Sextet(Columbia), Enoch Light & his Orchestra(Command) and Stan Getz, Creed Taylor produced “Big Band Bossa Nova”(Verve). Heck, even Chubby Checker was getting in on the action by releasing a latin-themed album called “Limbo Party”(Parkway).

    1962 was truly the year of the bossa nova breakout. It’s worth remembering, though, that the English-language lyrics for “Girl from Ipanema” were not written yet.

    The Getz/Gilberto Recording

    The “Getz/Gilberto” album was the second time Getz had played with Brazilian musicians. On February 8th, 9th, & 27th – 1963, just a few weeks before the “Getz/Gilberto” sessions, Getz recorded the tracks for Stan Getz & Luiz Bonfá: “Jazz Samba Encore!” at Webster Hall in New York City, with Phil Ramone as recording engineer. In some ways, this was a rehearsal with the best yet to come. IMHO the “Jazz Samba Encore!” album was actually much better than the 1962 Getz, Byrd album because of the participation of Luiz Bonfá.

    The sessions for “Jazz Samba Encore!” included Bonfa’s then wife, Maria Toledo, who also co-wrote a number of tracks on the album [11]

    Ruy Castro notes “A few days after the concert at Carnegie Hall, they had all met for the first time — Getz, Jobim, Joao Gilberto, and producer Creed Taylor from Verve — in the Rehearsal Hall at Carnegie Hall. They wanted to sound out the possibilities of an album.”[12]Bossa Nova: The Story of the Brazilian Music That Seduced The World – Ruy Castro – Published by A Capella Books, 2000 – ISBN 1-55652-409-9

    The “Getz/Gilberto” recording was scheduled for a single day, March 18th at the A&R Studios on W 48 St in Manhattan, with an additional day, March 19th reserved for overflow. Given the late addition of Norman Gimbel’s English-lyrics for the “Girl From Ipanema” and the interplay between Getz, Jobim and João Gilberto, the extra day was indeed needed. Ruy Castro discusses issues with Getz playing and says of the sessions “The recording of the Getz/Gilberto album was not as peaceful as its fantastic eight tracks make it out to have been.” [13]Bossa Nova: The Story of the Brazilian Music That Seduced The World – Ruy Castro – Published by A Capella Books, 2000 – ISBN 1-55652-409-9

    As well as Jobim, Astrud and João Gilberto, a drummer who helped define the sound of bossa nova, Milton Banana was in the studio; Sebastião (Tião) Neto, another go-to Brazilian musician was the bass player on the record. His name was omitted on pressings before 1970[14] Many of the CD releases from 1983 include a credit for Tommy Williams playing the bass [15]I didn’t have time to look into why this was, maybe just an error or as I’ll discuss, maybe a necessity?. Marc Myers Jazzwax has some additional color commentary [16]

    Taylor decided on an early use of recording at 30 inches per second to tape rather than the normal 15 inches per second. This would improve the quality of the recording but at a significant additional expense. Simply, this technique, in principle, records more sound, more accurately. It does though require longer and more tapes. Given the success of the album, this was not only a smart idea for the time but would also lend itself to the magical world of re-issues (see “The Releases”) and likely accounts for some of the warm sound of the album.

    This is one of many examples of Taylor being at the bleeding-edge of recording technology. Just a couple of years after releasing “Sing A Song Of Basie” by Lambert, Hendricks and Ross – An album that used multiple layers of overdubbing for the first time. Both “Sing A Song Of Basie” and “Getz/Gilberto” albums are now in the Grammy Hall of Fame.

    The Releases

    The album, as noted, wasn’t released until March 18th, 1964. Its initial releases were both mastered for stereo and mono vinyl pressings and not the later “folding down” or “summing” processes. The US releases were all gatefold covers, as far as I’m aware. My dad’s UK 1963 pressing is not gatefold; gatefold wasn’t common in the UK at the time as the number of sales wasn’t high enough to offset the additional cost.

    As of the 2024, Impex Records 1Step pressing there are now over 350 separate vinyl, CD, tape, 8-track, cassette and digital releases. You can get the album in virtually any format and a variety of colors. Since the first CD reissue in 1983, and especially since the evolution of DSD, SACD and Blu-ray, many of the releases claim some form of “high definition” quality.

    A 2011 Analogue production included this:

    “The original master tapes for this title had not been used since 1980 previous to this reissue. Also, for this Analogue Productions reissue the decision was made to master and present this album as it was originally mixed to master tape. With very few exceptions all versions of this title to date, including the original, have had the channels incorrectly reversed. With this version, you’ll hear this title as it was intended to be heard, without the channels reversed.”

    Certainly by 2011, master tapes, stereo mix-downs and other original generations of tape were starting to decay. When Universal Music Group undertook their HFPA [17] initiative, possibly in response to the disastrous 2008 Universal Music storage fire [18] the master tapes for Getz/Gilberto were already suffering from tape delamination issues. This can be heard on the Astrud Gilberto track “Corcavado” on the 2013 remastered blue-ray edition of the album [19]Verve catalog number 600753418208.

    Many releases have also added “additional tracks” – For the most part those additional tracks are the 7″/45RPM edits for “Corcavado” and “Girl From Ipanema”.

    IMPEX 1STEP Pressing

    As mentioned, Impex Records have issued a flagship-1Step newly remastered vinyl pressing of “Getz/Gilberto”. The album is mastered at 45RPM and thus requires two records to accommodate the faster speed. Does a 45RPM speed capture something otherwise lost from a 30″ per-second recording that a 33RPM record would not? If this were a digital recording I’d have an opinion, but analog, not so much.

    I have not heard this new pressing, but Elusive records describes it thus “Using the original analog master tapes and no computers at all, Bernie Grundman at Bernie Grundman Mastering sought to keep the sense of space and tone on the master tape intact without unnecessary embellishment. Impex 1STEPs get you closer to the source, not the ideal.” [20] – The release is available from a number of retailers including discogs(starting at $143.99) and on ebay for $129.99 as well as available from Elusive Records for $129.99. Buyer beware.

    Marc Myers (Jazzwax) had a review of the 1Step release and an interview with Abey Fonn, founder of Impex on March 11th [21]

    Other Pressings Of Note

    Perhaps the most interesting of all the original pressings are: 1). the original MGM (stereo) reference pressing produced on the 18th of September 1963 and 2). a mono promo pressing of singles edits.

    The reference test pressing opens with “Só Danço Samba (Jazz Samba)”, then “The Girl From Ipanema” and two more tracks from the B-Side of the final pressing, “Vivo Sonhando” and “Desafinado”. With the tracks from the final pressing flipped on the B-Side. There is, as of writing, a copy on sale via Discogs at $2,500.00.

    In my collection I have five Creed Taylor produced mini-album box sets. Some are mastered for 33 1/3RPM, others at 45RPM but are in 7″ jukebox format, with five or six 7″ records per box. Most have traditional jukebox middles with the larger holes, except the 1962 Jack Teagarden set which have the small spindle holes. These were originally manufactured as mini-albums for custom and often proprietary jukebox models. Pressing the 7″ records for 33 1/3 RPM meant they could have 3-tracks per side, or the same edits as album tracks. Many 7″/singles were issued at that time as single record mini-albums with multiple tracks per side; others were issued as box sets with one track per side.

    They were all issued with Jukebox strips. A subject I’d like to come back to as by the mid-1960’s home jukeboxes were a thing. Here is my mini-album version of “Getz Au Go Go” – released as a specific pressing for Seeburg Jukeboxes in 1966, two years after the actual album was released. Note the mini-album pictures, the Seeburg had specific display areas for these and not just the title strips [22]

    Vinyl Mono Edits Album

    Why the mono pressing album is interesting here is because it opens with a single edit of “Girl From Ipanema” that lasts 2:48. What makes it remarkable is that it includes both João and Astrud Gilberto’s vocals. Stan Getz is effectively only heard on the fade out. The mono single edits album pressing carries master number V/DJ-2. although the album has the general release V-8545 catalogue number.

    In January 1964, during “National Wurlitzer Week”, Wurlitzer were introducing the new Model 2800, and MGM Records were all in. “Pop” star Johnny Tillotson was featured on the cover of the January 18th, 1964 issue of Cash Box with a Wurlitzer. Under the picture an announcement declared that Tillotson’s “diskings” would be released later that month along with an album. Coin-operated phonographs were still a big deal, and getting bigger with the rise of pop, R&B and discotheque – which wasn’t disco as we understand it now.

    Also big at that time was the new Seeburg Extended Bass Consolette. The same week as “National Wurlitzer Week” was in Cash Box, Seeburg President J. Camron “Jack Gordon wrote to jukebox operators saying “to attend a meeting in their area, no matter what else they might have planned.” Gordon’s letter said, “I guarantee you will hear some of the most startling news you have ever heard from anyone in our industry.”

    Seeburg had introduced background music machines, ironically something that they “Girl From Ipanema” would be accused of becoming over the next few years. The big announcement? A Music subscription service which used initially incompatible 7″ pressing, the first of the 1965 Rec-O-Dance records featured “Girl From Ipanema” [23]Seeburg who also made coffee vending machines, issued millions of dollars of bonds in the 1960’s and declared bankruptcy in 1979. Seeburg was sold to Stern after being broken-up during … Continue reading.

    So you could say that “Girl From Ipanema” was part of the original elevator and background music scene courtesy of Seeburg.

    While the Mono Single Edits pressing could have just been to issue to radio station DJ’s, it is my opinion that this was more likely to have been a prequel to producing a mini-album jukebox set, probably for Wurlitzer, but maybe for Seeburg, that as far as I’m aware, didn’t happen.

    “The Girl From Ipanema” wasn’t new on this record. It was written in 1962, music by Jobim and Portuguese lyrics by Vinícius de Moraes. “Garota de Ipanema” (Portuguese pronunciation: [gaˈɾotɐ dʒiˈpanemɐ]). As such, it was recorded and released later the same year by Pery Ribeiro [24] for the Brazilian record label Odeon [25]

    The track was released on a 10″ shellac 78RPM disc. The original Ribeiro version is not available. A Portuguese version is posted on YouTube; it is in stereo and likely a re-recording.

    The first version of “Girl From Ipanema” Creed Taylor and Verve released was a Jobim instrumental version. It was recorded after the Getz/Gilberto version. Sessions for the album “Verve V/V6-8547 Antonio Carlos Jobim – The Composer Of Desafinado, Plays” were held on May 9 and 10, 1963 [26] For a number of reasons, the album and singles were released before the “Getz/Gilberto” album.

    It’s my opinion that when “Girl From Ipanema”, in modern reviews referred to as “elevator” or “background music”, it is covers of this instrumental version people really mean rather than the “Getz/Gilberto” version, either the album or 45/RPM edit with Astruds vocals.

    The only 1963 press and media mentions of the track are referring to the Jobim version. It was released in October 1963 as a B-side on a promo 7″/45RPM with “Corcovado” as the A-side [27]

    Cash Box’s first mention of “The Girl From Ipanema” comes in its October 19th, 1963 edition – in the New York column called “Record Ramblings”. The feature says “Mickey Wallach [28]Mickey Wallach was a former producer of the Jack Eigen, Sherm Feller, and Kal Ross shows, was by the early ’60s one half of the Wallach-Edwards Productions Inc., essentially freelance record … Continue reading was up to the CB [Cash Box] offices to tell us about the DJ reaction to Jobim’s ‘The Girl From Ipanema’ (Verve) and the ‘Any Number Can Win’ album by Jimmy Smith, also on Verve.”

    Q. Is Astrud Gilberto’s Girl From Ipanema one of the most covered songs?

    NO. To start with the English language version at least uses the same music as the original Portuguese version. Even together, the two songs do not have as many covers as the Beatles “Yesterday”. According to secondhandsongs. The Gimbel penned English language version, has 274 covers. There are 21 songs by the Beatles alone that have more cover versions.

    In its May 2023 “most covered” list from the website the track doesn’t even make the top-50. Although I probably disagree with some of their findings and data [29]

    Given both the length of this article, as well as many of the claims made about the single the “Girl From Ipanema” it is easy to imagine that it ruled the world in 1964. In their December 26th, 1964 issue Billboard Magazine listed their “Top Singles Artists of 1964” – “Based on weekly Billboard charts during 1964, The Beatles were far and away the top singles act of the year.” – The Beatles were followed by The Dave Clarke Five; The Four Seasons; The Beach Boys and at #5, Elvis Presley. Getz and Astrud Gilberto? #89.

    The Shadow Of Mann

    One of the first commercial releases of the original instrumental “Girl From Ipanema” was by longtime Creed Taylor foil, Herbie Mann. Mann performed both the instrumental “Garota de Ipanema” credited only to Jobim as the writer and “Desafinado” live on July 7th at the 1963 Newport Jazz Festival and issued both tracks on his Atlantic Records album “Live at Newport.” [30]

    This isn’t surprising, Cash Box, November 10th, 1962 reported Mann had been to Brazil in 1962 performing with Gilberto, Jobim and Bonfa. He had also been the first American Jazz musician to record an album in Rio using local musicians.

    The Atlantic album and a 7″/45RPM version of Ipanema were released in October 1963, after Herbie Mann had been signed to a new long term contract by Nesuhi Ertegun, Vice-President of Atlantic, who is the producer of Mann’s albums and singles[31]Cash Box magazine – October 10th, 1963 – Page 35.

    Interestingly, Willis Conover’s liner notes for the Mann album include “Ipanema is a beach in Rio, not a toothpaste, where people go when they’re tired of going to the famous Copacabana beach. “On this beach,” says Herbie, “there is a girl who, when she walks, walks like a samba.” – More than a passing coincidence for the Gimbel lyric?

    This is almost certainly why Taylor and Verve scrambled to release a 7″/45RPM of the Jobim instrumental Ipanema along with album “The Composer Of Desafinado, Plays” later the same month (Verve VK-10303).

    Q. Was the Getz/Gilberto release delayed, if so why?

    Why would Creed Taylor release the Jobim version first? Creed, as discussed many times was a man of few words with an undergraduate degree in psychology from Duke University. Creed knew that repetition both legitimizes and reinforces a message or style. Having the instrumental track released wouldn’t hurt the vocal version.

    There are a number of theory’s to why the album was held up.

    1. Most common is that Creed didn’t know how good the album was, and “stuck it in a draw”. This just doesn’t hold-up to scrutiny. Although at this point Taylor had only 8-years as a producer, what he had done at Bethlehem, ABC Paramount, Impulse and Verve was simply too good to not understand the significance of this album. Remember, a year before Taylor travelled to Washington DC and back in a day to record “Jazz Samba” before both Stan Getz and Charlie Byrd went back on tour. In his book, recording engineer for the “Getz/Gilberto” album sessions said “I didn’t know at the time, but I was in on the beginning of a new craze [bossa nova] – Creed definitely knew” [32]Making Records: The Scenes Behind the Music – Phil Ramone – Published Hyperion – ISBN: 978-O-7868-6859-9.
    2. A variation of 1. which also has Monica Getz being the forcing factor to get the single and album released. – While there is truth to the reports of Monica Getz pushing to get the track and Getz/Gilberto album released. By 1963 Taylor had much success, and with the massive might of MGM marketing behind him, could afford to hold off. Companies often hold back product releases to maximize profit and yearly, quarterly targets. Timing is everything!
    3. Creed / Verve / MGM didn’t want the album to impact sales of their current samba and bossa nova records. – This, as one of my contacts said, just doesn’t add up. Given the number other samba and bossa nova recordings MGM / Verve / Taylor made and released between March 1963 and March 1964.
    4. Sarah Vaughan – In his book “Making Records: The Scenes Behind The Music” [33]Making Records: The Scenes Behind the Music – Phil Ramone – Published Hyperion ISBN: 978-O-7868-6859-9 – Phil Ramone notes that when Creed Taylor first saw the Norman Gimbel lyrics, his first response was “Jeez, it would be nice to get this song to Sarah Vaughan” and that the version sung by Astrud could be used as a “demo for Sarah.” Ramone “cut a disc” and sent Astrud’s version over to Quincy Jones. Sarah Vaughan declined to record it and after the Getz/Gilberto version became a success, recorded the derivative “A Boy From Ipanema”.

    So why was the album held up? Sarah Vaughan had completed her contract with Roulette Records in 1963. We know that Creed Taylor and Quincy Jones had more than a passing relationship; we do not know what it was at that time. Quincy had worked with Vaughan in the late fifties; Vaughan had been at Mercury Records, and she would re-sign with Mercury later in 1963.

    Quincy Jones and Sarah Vaughan went to Denmark in July 1963. They recorded the live album “Sassy Swings the Tivoli” over four days from July 18 to 21 at the concert hall of the Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen[34]

    Right before leaving for Denmark with Jones, Vaughan recorded the tracks for her final Roulette album with Lalo Schifrin, “Sweet ‘N’ Sassy” [35]Roulette would continue to release Vaughan albums, including the 1963 “The Explosive Side Of Sarah Vaughan” but this was tracks they already had.

    While I have nothing but the remarks from the Ramone book to support this hypothesis, it is my view the album and especially the Astrud Gilberto vocal version of “Girl From Ipanema” was indeed held-up trying to get Sarah Vaughan to record it.

    It’s not clear if Verve was trying to sign Vaughan rather than have her go to Mercury; it may have been that Creed Taylor wanted or was looking to help Quincy Jones [36]There is a very good reason why Taylor might have wanted to do this, his name was Clarence Avant. I’ll come back to Avant sometime in the summer. – we can’t know at this point unless you can ask Quincy what he recalls from 1963?

    This though is the most likely reason. MGM/Verve had both the money and incentive to sign Vaughan, especially given MGM’s acquisition of Verve from Norman Granz. When Quincy and Sarah Vaughan got back from Denmark, Taylor had his answer.

    Having been declined, Taylor and the engineers started work on the album in earnest in September 1963. This would account for the acetate MGM Records reference stereo test pressing, it had tracks in a different order and marginally different edits. They continued to work on the mastering including the single and mono’ edits.

    The Monica Getz Effect

    In a video from May 2022, Niels Lan Dorky discusses with Monica Getz the problems with issuing the album, Monica says:

    The whole country was just playing this record over and over again and nobody could buy it.

    So, I thought “got to get to see the President of MGM [Records] who was a big big deal then. There he was on the top [floor] of the building with his feet on the desk just like movie moguls, – truth is better than fiction.

    Through Creed Taylor’s secretary, I got an appointment, she was a good friend of his secretary and up I went with a little 45 and played it and he said yeah I heard that in my limousine on the way to work, what’s the big deal?

    I said the big deal is that you don’t want to make any money I suppose, because you have the rights to this record and you can’t find it anywhere!

    Then, he said do you want the record company’s President job? I said no, I don’t want that job – he said consider it out and before I took the elevator down to Creed Taylor’s office – there it was, release signaled.” [37]

    Monica Getz in Discussion with Niels Lan Doky – Hotel Marienlyst, Helsingør – May 29, 2022

    Without additional detail it is hard to know what to make of this. The MGM Records President at the time would have been the outgoing Arnold Maxin. Maxin would move sideways in June 1965 to run MGM’s publishing company “The Big Three” [38] to be replaced by Mort Nasatir. We can’t know if Maxin was keeping his cards close to his chest knowing it would be released, or if Monica Getz protestations and radio station campaign really made the difference?

    Even if it did, it was still in 1964, as noted the Astrud Gilberto lyric version of “Girl From Ipanema” received no press coverage in 1963 and couldn’t, as Monica Getz suggests have been “played all over the country” without at least appearing in some of the then, “airplay charts”.

    In May of 1964, Verve announced “Bowing to the insistent demand of disk jockeys and their listeners, Verve Records has coupled two Stan Getz sides into one powerhouse single. “Blowin’ In the Wind” and “The Girl From Ipanema” [VK-10323] now form Stan’s hottest 45 r.p.m. entry since “Desafinado.” Jockeys are on it, order it immediately. Release of this single supersedes distribution of VK 10321 [39] and VK 10322 [40] which have been discontinued.

    The Result

    Cash Box November 13th, 1965: “Stan Getz now has an official classic LP seller to his credit. The album is MGM/Verve’s “Getz Gilbert©,’’ which has received RIAA-certification as an LP that has sold at least $1 million worth of copies. The great jazz star (right) is shown receiving the familiar symbol of disk success—a gold LP—from Mort Nasatir, president of MGM/Verve. In addition to the sales award, the LP is also the winner of three Grammys from NARAS, the disk academy. The artist’s big current release is an LP of music from the soundtrack of “Mickey One.” He is currently on a college tour and is scheduled to give concerts at Carnegie Hall on Nov. 26 and at the Westchester County Center on Dec, 29.” – Mort Nasatir would go on to become Recording Academy (Grammy) Chairman/President (1968–1969).

    The million-selling album won four Grammy Awards (plus five other nominations) in 1965. It remained on Billboard’s pop charts for 96-weeks, reaching No.2 – the track, “The Girl from Ipanema”, became an instant hit, launching the careers of João and Astrud Gilberto in America.

    Grammy Wins

    • Getz/Gilberto feat. Jobim – 7th – 1964 – Album Of The Year
    • Getz/Gilberto feat. Jobim – 7th – 1964 – Record Of The Year
    • Phil Ramone – 7th – 1964 – Best Engineered Recording
    • Stan Getz – 7th – 1964 – Best Instrumental Jazz Performance – Small Group Or Soloist With Small Group

    Grammy Nominations

    • Getz/Gilberto (Album) – Acy R. Lehman – 7th – 1964 – Best Album Cover – Other Than Classical
    • “The Girl From Ipanema (Single)” Astrud Gilberto 7th 1964 Best Vocal Performance, Female
    • Getz/Gilberto (Album) João Gilberto 7th 1964 Best Vocal Performance, Male
    • Getz/Gilberto (Album) Stan Getz, João Gilberto & Gene Lees 7th 1964 Best Album Notes

    Grammy Hall Of Fame

    The Grammy Latin Hall of fame would go on to accept

    • “Getz/Gilberto” – Bossa Nova Album
    • “Garota de Ipanema” Girl From Ipanema – Antonio Carlos Jobim Verve single.

    While the Grammy Hall of Fame would admit

    • “Getz/Gilberto” Verve Jazz Album
    • “Desafinado” – Stan Getz and Charlie Byrd Verve single
    • “The Girl from Ipanema” Stan Getz and Astrud Gilberto Verve Single
    • “Jazz Samba” Stan Getz and Charlie Byrd Verve Jazz Album

    Astrud Gilberto

    “Girl From Ipanema” an edit from the “Getz/Gilberto” album is one of the 20th Century’s biggest hits. Of course the success of the single/45RPM 7″ radio edit would carry along millions of sales of the album. What is less understood is that the single edit, which dropped João Gilberto’s vocals and repeated Astrud Gilberto’s was an invention of Creed Taylor and engineers Val Valentine and Phil Ramone. The musicians never played it this way, it was never sung this way.

    Their edit not only took the vocals of João Gilberto off, but compared to the earlier single edit, increased the amount of Getz sax’ heard while still reducing the track from it’s original 5-minutes 15-seconds to 2-minutes 44-seconds.

    An outstanding music producer can guide a musician to capture the core of their music. This can involve small adjustments. For example, they may change how a song sounds, how an instrument is played a minor change in the tempo. They might also change how a song starts, add something special from another musician, or include a great performer. In this case introducing the English-lyric, especially sung by Astrud Gilberto led to a brilliant moment in music.

    Phil Ramone talks about this, in relation to Steve Gadd’s drumming into to Paul Simon’s “50-Ways To Leave Your Lover” [41]Making Records: The Scenes Behind the Music – Phil Ramone – Published Hyperion – ISBN: 978-O-7868-6859-9.

    There is no doubt the record owes its success to Astrud Gilberto’s vocals in context of an otherwise outstanding bossa nova album. There was though no doubt that Astrud’s success was subject to envy and criticism that clearly contributed to her feelings about the recording and how she was perceived.

    Writing in his book “Getz/Gilbert” Bryan McCann notes “Many established Brazilian musicians never accepted Astrud’s success. They portrayed her as lucky rather than talented, in the right place at the right time.” [42]Getz/Gilberto – Bryan McCann – 33 1/3 Brazil – Published by BLOOMSBURY ACADEMIC, 2019 – ISBN: HB: 978-1-5013-2396-6 – This is the music business though. 90% of success comes from being in the right place at the right time, 10% is the value that the musician brings that is unique and different from what other musicians could bring.

    While “Girl From Ipanema” is widely reported to be the second most recorded song ever, only bested by the Beatles “Yesterday”. Dan Ouellette writing in the February 2023 issue of Downbeat says that “[Elaine] Elias reflected on the dark period that inspired his [Anton Carlos Jobim] classic song “Waters Of March,” sung in Portuguese but also translated into English. It ended up being the most recorded song of his oeuvre, surpassing even “The Girl From Ipanema.”

    Q. Who Was Astrud Gilberto

    At the time of the recording, she was just about to turn 23 years old and had been married to Brazilian music icon João Gilberto for 3 years. She was an intelligent, articulate woman who spoke multiple languages. Astrud Evangelina Weinert came from Salvador, Bahia, region of Brazil and not from Rio de Janeiro or Ipanema beach as some would assume. One of three sisters of a German father and a Brazilian mother, Astrud grew up in Rio de Janeiro. She emigrated to the United States in the early 1960s.

    Later in her life, Gilberto was an advocate of animal rights. She was the recipient of the Latin Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2008 and died at her long time home in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on June 5, 2023, aged 83.

    Astrud Gilberto suffered as much as anyone from made-up stories. In the sixties, made-up stories on album liner notes were de rigueur. Many of the stories about her she found disturbing and insulting, because she didn’t feel that the stories represented her true self.

    We all make up stories to fill in the blanks, to help us make sense of things that often otherwise make no sense. However, when dealing with many of the claims made about Astrud, and by her, it is important to keep them in the context of the times. That’s not to excuse the way Astrud might have been described, spoken about, or treated, but values, morals, social awareness, and women’s rights have changed significantly since the 1960s.

    Perhaps the most intriguing story I read while doing the research for this article, is the most surprising. During a telephone interview for another Astrud Gilberto compilation, Universal Music/Verve “Round Midnight Series” [43] – they even tweeted about it from the “official” Astrud Gilberto ID.

    Astrud told Jazz Journalist Association President and Jazz commentator and author, Howard Mandel that she “was not married to João; she had accompanied him to the US as his girlfriend.” There is no further account online that I am able to find, but Mandel did discuss his interview with Ann Cefola, an Award-winning copy writer [44]

    Astrud told me that she was not married to João; she had accompanied him to the US as his girlfriend. She was just sitting in the room with Getz and Gilberto, serving as a translator, when Getz asked her to sing. She did not consider herself a singer at the time, had not done it professionally, and didn’t think she had the voice.

    If true, that Astrud wasn’t João’s wife at the time of recording, it generates as many questions as it answers. However, it does put a much sharper edge on why Astrud felt so aggrieved by the actions of MGM/Verve and all the subsequent reportage, and “housewife” shaming. I hope to be able to speak with Howard Mandel and will write-up a shorter follow-up.

    Gene Lees, who had been a Down Beat editor until 1962, and whose lyrics for Antonio Carlos Jobim’s “Corcovado” (released as “Quiet Nights of Quiet Stars”) are sung on the “Getz/Gilberto” album by Astrud Gilberto. Lees is the source of two of the key issues that would run on from the album’s release through to today.

    First, on the “Getz/Gilberto” album sleeve notes Lees described Astrud thus “The girl’s voice you hear on the album is that of Astrud, João’s wife a sweet, quiet girl who is herself a composer— and of necessity, João’s English translator!”

    Lees also wrote in his Jazz Letters and his book

    Stan’s call to Creed Taylor when The Girl from Ipanema, with Astrud Gilberto’s vocal, became a hit. Betsy, Creed’s secretary, told him Stan had called a few times.

    Creed thought he was going to ask that Astrud be given some sort of royalty; she hadn’t even been paid for the date. On the contrary, Stan was calling to be sure she wasn’t going to be paid. I have verified this with both Betsy and Creed. The story made the rounds, prompting Al Cohn’s widely-quoted remark, “It’s nice to see that success hasn’t changed Stan Getz.”

    Gene Lees Jazzletter – May 1997, Vol. 16 No. 5

    Astrud Gilberto long felt she did not receive the recognition she deserved for her role in making the album a success, but also, as a result, did not financially benefit the way the men, Getz, João Gilberto and Anton Carlos (Tom) Jobim had. In various interviews she made the point that she felt she should have received a “producer” credit for her contributions, especially on her later albums.

    In the Downbeat yearbook looking at 1964, Don Michael wrote

    Stan Getz almost singlehandedly revived bossa nova with The Girl from Ipanema. The tenor saxophonist had more than able assistance, however, from guitarist-singer Joao Gilberto, composer-pianist Antonio Carlos Jobim (who wrote the music for Girl), and Joao’s wife, Astrud, who made her recording debut on the album—Getz and Gilberto—from which the hit was culled. Mrs. Gilberto later toured the country with Getz and his quartet.

    down beat Music ’65 – 10th Yearbook

    This in many ways sums up the simmering discontent that would brew over the recording session until and beyond Astrud Gilberto’s death in 2023.

    Q. Had Astrud Gilberto Sung Before The Recording?

    In his book, Ruy Castro repeats the story that Astrud “had only ever sung within the safe confines of their own home” and says “In the old days, Hollywood paid writers to invent stories like that.” – Indeed, lots of stories were made up on album sleeves and liner notes. In some cases the artist and track names were even changed at the last minute to avoid publishing, licensing and copyright credits.

    In this case, Castro also notes Astrud”had rehearsed exhaustively with Joao Gilberto for her participation in the “Night of Love, a Smile, and a Flower” performance at the Rio School of Architecture at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), two years earlier (1960)[45]Bossa Nova: The Story of the Brazilian Music That Seduced The World – Ruy Castro – Published by A Capella Books, 2000 – ISBN 1-55652-409-9. Astrud discusses this on her website as well [46]

    However, whatever Astrud Gilberto would say and claim later in her life, a 1981 New York Times interview with John S. Wilson – she would basically repeat all the usual descriptions of her involvement, including her own admission “”I had never sung in public before,” she recalled. ”When I saw the long lines waiting outside the club to get in, I was scared.” – This would have been the first Getz Quartet appearance at Cafe Au Go Go in Greenwich Village, NY on May 22nd, 1964. [47]

    Q. Was Astrud’s Involvement in the album planned?

    There are three takes on this. We will never know the truth and it doesn’t change anything if we did.

    1. João knew Astrud could sing, they’d been rehearsing and performed together. João had planned to have her sing as she would be at the sessions as his translator. This is the “surprise” version of the story. and is told by Astrud herself [48] and is recounted in Phil Ramone’s book[49]Making Records: The Scenes Behind the Music – Phil Ramone – Published Hyperion ISBN: 978-O-7868-6859-9.

    2. As is often claimed, Creed believed the lyric needed an English language boost to be a hit, had Norman Gimbel write the lyric and Astrud was the only person available who could sing it. It’s ludicrous in some reports it says something to the effect “Creed looked around the room and Astrud was the only one who could sing”.

    3. Creed had Norman Gimbel write the English lyric, and expected or planned to have someone else sing it. This is basically #2, but without the embellishment.

    4. Astrud herself had planned to sing. Accompanying João would have given her the right time and place for that. This is what I’ve always told my kids, and those I mentored. Be there. Speak-up, you have to be in it to win it.

    My take on this fits the hypothesis about the delay. When Creed saw the Gimbel English lyrics and ran through them in the studio, he knew this would be a hit and given that Sarah Vaughan was at the time of the recording unsigned, felt this would be a great song for her. Hence having Astrud do the demo.

    Castro says “the only incidental aspect of Astrud’s participation in the record was the fact that nobody there, except for her and perhaps João Gilberto, knew that this was going to happen. In Astrud’s mind, the idea of recording professionally wasn’t new.”

    When interviewed by Marc Myers Jazzwax – Taylor told Myers that the inclusion of Astrud was at Stan’s insistence, he also confirmed the story of Monica Getz retrieving João from the hotel [50]

    In a 1971 interview, published in the April 3rd edition of Record World about Norman Gimble – “lyricists, the Forgotten Men of Songwriting” it said:

    I wrote the lyrics, but in those days you couldn’t even make a demo because none of the musicians in New York knew how to get the beat right. We cut ‘The Girl from Ipanema’ one night without much thought about it. Astrud Gilberto happened to be there and she sang a broken lyric with the wrong bridge.”

    Gimbel wrote lyrics (not translations, he stressed) for four of Antonio Carlos Jobim’s songs and has done lyrics for about 35 other Brazilian songs.

    Record World – April 3rd, 1971 – Page-38

    Q. Was Astrud paid for the recording?

    Before answering this, let’s take a diversion. What is the most memorable saxophone break or sequence in popular music you can think of? For me, it’s this.

    Everyone remembers Ralph Ravenscroft, right? Of course you don’t.

    Ravenscroft played what is arguably the most memorable saxophone break of all time in popular music, he played on Gerry Rafety’s “Baker Street” [51]

    For that performance he was paid a union rate of just $27.50 in 1978, based on inflation etc. today that would be about $200 [52] The recording session was some 15-years after Astrud Gilberto sung without contract as a non-union musician.

    When Martin Chilton wrote his hatchet job about how poorly Astrud had been treated, he completely missed the fact that this type of treatment wasn’t sex or raced based, Astrud wasn’t treated especially badly as Chilton would have it: “Without the 22-year-old’s voice, ‘The Girl From Ipanema’ would not have become the phenomenon it did – but mistreatment, misogyny and lack of compensation wore her down.” [53]

    Let’s for a minute return to a year earlier and “Jazz Samba” In 2012 Chris Richards writing in the Washington Post for the 50th anniversary of “Jazz Samba” wrote the following:

    Aside from the $150 he was paid for the recording session, Deppenschmidt never received royalties from “Jazz Samba,” an album he says would not have existed without his push. He filed suit against Verve Records in 2001, a case David Adler reported on extensively in Jazz Times magazine in 2004. Deppenschmidt’s lawsuit came nearly four decades after Charlie Byrd filed suit against Getz and Verve’s then-parent label, MGM, for “Jazz Samba” royalties in the ’60s [54]

    Chris Richards – Washington Post – 2012, April 19th

    This wasn’t a story about how badly Astrud was treated, although she was. This was a story of a business reaching for the sky and failing, falling back to earth and being consumed by a Las Vegas mogul. This was a story of a time before computers, a story of when the mob illegally repressed records, a story of getting paid union rates and little else. Can we blame Creed Taylor? In 1962 through 1964, Taylor produced 151 albums. That’s one a week.

    This included recording planning sessions and track selection with the artists; studio sessions for recording; post recording review and editing; and then production meetings. We know Taylor did all these for some artists, for most artists he would have been involved a the front end, leaving the back end to staff. MGM/Verve wasn’t Taylor. It was the recording and music division of a major American corporation.

    Astrud shouldn’t have expected any royalties unless she had a contract that said she should. She didn’t. Even if she did, the types of royalties an artist can get are only a subset of the total [55] This was a Getz leader album with João Gilberto, and Anton Carlos Jobim as well as a number of other musicians and writers, all of whom were under contract or implied contract through publishing and union rights.

    Even today, the performers of music typically get no royalties from “Performance Rights”. That is, music played on the radio ONLY pays through publishing companies for the writers and publishers. This is especially true in the USA, it doesn’t matter how many times Astrud Gilberto had been played on the radio, she would have received no payment for it. Even if Astrud had a contract, typically at the time it would have limited her to receiving a share of just 50% of the revenue. The writers, Jobim, Moraes and Gimbel and their publishing companies take 50%. Of course there were other writers of tracks on the album as well.

    Surely even a small percentage of millions in dollars in sales would have been better than how Astrud was treated, but as stated, she never had a contract. The music business has pretty much always done only what was legal, and in some cases illegal rather than what was right. Taylor Swift did not re-record all her early albums because she wanted to [56]

    This is a long and confusing topic given the breadth of the subject of royalties. I recently gave-up after 300 of the 650-pages in Jeff and Todd Brabec’s “Music Money And Success” book [57]THE INSIDER’S GUIDE TO MAKING MONEY IN THE MUSIC BUSINESS – Jeffrey Brabec and Todd Brabec – Published Schirmer Trade Books, 2018 – ISBN-13: 978-1-7876-0138-3 / … Continue reading. Music licensing is simply summarized as, if it makes a noise you probably need a license to use it.

    The epicenter of the problem of Astrud’s payment falls squarely on Gene Lees. Lees reported in his Jazz letters that Getz had called Creed’s office, talked to his secretary Betsy and told her he was “anxious” to talk to Creed. When Creed spoke to Stan, Lees reports that Stan told Creed that Astrud should get no royalties from the recording. Lees repeats this story in his book “Singers And Song II” [58]Singers and the Song II – Gene Lees – Published OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1998 – ISBN 0-19-511556-2 and adds a lot more color about Getz. What Lees doesn’t recount is what Taylor’s response was or when the call happened. Taylor wouldn’t have been planning to assign rights to Astrud as she had been paid for her studio time inline with the American Federation of Musicians requirements.

    How much was Astrud paid is subject to some variation. Lees again in “Singers and Song II” “Astrud hadn’t been paid a penny for the session, though of course her husband had. And within days, the record was on the charts.” – As noted Lees is wrong on when the record was on the charts and my research says he is wrong on if Astrud was paid. Ruy Castro says $120, mine says $168, Astrud’s son Marcelo has also been qouted saying $120.

    If we split the difference and say Astrud received $144, in todays money that would be around $1,400. Not great, but not nothing.

    My final beef with Chilton’s 2022 hatchet job is in this paragraph.

    She again made the mistake of recording without a contract when she reunited with Taylor for his own label, CTI Records, when she did the bulk of the production work. “I was inexperienced and didn’t realise you are supposed to insist on credits,” she said. Her family also claim that she did not receive full payments for her 1972 album Now and for her 1977 album That Girl from Ipanema. “She re-recorded a disco version of ‘The Girl from Ipanema’ on the latter album, marking the second instance she would record the song, and never be paid for it,” alleges Marcelo. “She believed in people and was trusting,” he added. “They took advantage of her good nature, trust and desire to make music.

    Martin Chilton – Tuesday 15 February 2022 – ‘He made sure that she got nothing’: The sad story of Astrud Gilberto, the face of bossa nova | The Independent

    This is either sloppily written, or sloppily edited. Between the 1963 “Getz/Gilberto” album and 1972, where Chilton asserts she didn’t get “full payments” for the album “Now” and the 1977 “That Girl From Ipanema”, recorded seven more albums with Creed Taylor, neither of these were among them. It’s genuinely concerning that almost 10-years on from the recording of “Getz/Gilberto” and a number of other albums, Chilton would take this on face value. Are we supposed to assume that Astrud never had a personal or booking manager from 1963 until 1972, and even then a host of other US or Brazilian musicians didn’t give her any advice?

    The 1972 “Now” album was recorded for Perception records. The album contained a host of Brazilian stars including both Eumir Deodato, Airto Moreira and the afore mentioned Maria Helena Toledo. The 1977 album “That Girl From Ipanema” is the “disco” record mentioned by Chilton. The album was co-produced by Astrud Gilberto and now legendary MFSB and Philly sound musician and producer, Vincent Montana, Jr. Recorded in 1977 it wasn’t released until July 1978 on the Image Records label. Image was a sub-label of Audio Fidelity Records, the company that had been originally started by Sid Frey back in the 50’s. What goes around, comes around.

    I remember the “That Girl From Ipanema” album in the 1970’s. it was just another artist does-disco-album, although it does contain some good non-disco tracks. For a disco rendition of “Girl From Ipanema”, Astrud was two years to late [59]there was an earlier disco version by Zakariah (I have no idea…) that came out in London just before Christmas 1975. It was a horn heavy, throbbing, four to the floor disco beat, and it was really not that good, it didn’t chart at all

    “That Girl…” album also includes a huge cast of support and sidemen including both Chet Baker and Urbie Green. Don Sebesky was one of four arrangers for the album. All those had to paid out of the proceeds.

    To associate either of these with Creed is sloppy or disingenuous at best. A version of Chilton’s article is also available Universal Music’s “uDiscover Music” website wrote “Getz gave a misleading, sexist interview to the UK magazine Jazz Professional in 1966″ – the article includes the subheading ““They resorted to lying!” – Which is odd considering Universal Music own the rights to most of Astrud’s recordings and could have made a voluntary settlement and turned this whole issue into a “nothing burger”. That’s of course not how business works. If what Astrud told Mandell in 2017 is true, it’s surprising that Chilton makes no mention of this in 2022. [60]

    Q. Did Astrud profit from her involvement?

    Yes. While it’s easy to think that she should have at least received some royalties for the “Getz/Gilberto” recordings, that has never been the way the music industry has worked. In essence, the album turned Astrud Gilberto into an “overnight success” It didn’t come easily though.

    Astrud would have been paid for touring and live performances. The fees for this would have been negotiated with the venue and the performer, and while there would have been a few appearances to promote the record, these would have been minimal.

    In 1964 alone, I have been able to assemble a list of 148 performances and appearances by Astrud Gilberto, many but not all with Stan Getz. It’s almost impossible to imagine today the almost relentless travel and life on the road in order to perform that many times in a year. Many of the performances were in fact multi-night bookings which reduced the travel.

    On October 9th, 1964 – Stan Getz and Astrud and João Gilberto had a repeat performance and concert at Carnegie Hall, just shy of 2-years from the Carnegie Hall Bossa Nova concert that started it all. This was recorded and produced by Taylor as “Getz/Gilberto #2” – the genie was truly out of the bottle by then, Getz appeared on one side of the album, João Gilberto on the other.

    It is again hard to imagine, but apart from the travel it wasn’t all glamorous. The College Times, the student paper for Cal State in LA, featured Stan Getz and Astrud Gilberto on the cover of it’s October 30th, 1964 edition. Accompanied by text that read “They are scheduled for 2 performances, one at noon and the 2nd at 1 p.m, in the gym. Their appearance is co-sponsored by the Convocations Commission and the Associated Men’s Students in conjunction with AMS Men’s Week.” Of course, it would go on to say of Astrud “She had never sung outside the kitchen until Getz asked her to sing the English lyrics to the tune.”

    “Astrud Gilberto, appeared in a long red clinging sheath in the 2nd half of the performance. She sang a couple of songs in Portuguese and later climaxed her performance with “The Girl From Ipanema;” “It was the best attended convocations event this-year;” stated Phil Bell, convocations commissioner. The reason for the whopping attendance [4,500] can be summed up in one word — Class.”

    Cal State At Los Angeles – College Times XXVII, No. 18 Los Angeles, Calif. Wednesday, November 4, 1964

    It was the relentless touring and performing schedule that undoubtedly made the record a hit, along with the air-play that would come before and after performances in towns and cities around America and across the world.

    Astrud would go on to record albums with Creed Taylor, both for Verve and later for CTI. Taylor would been responsible for recording contracts only. The producer and record company promote live shows to sell records, while the artist’s management handles bookings and payments. However, the record company often advances money for touring expenses, which must be paid back.

    This is a common reason why famous performers may not earn their expected income from tours. The more they spend on touring, the less profit they make. This was as true in 1963-1965 as it is today. Many bands split up after having a hit record, the touring for a year, only to find their royalties eaten up completely by their touring expense advances from the record company.

    Q. Did Stan Getz and Astrud Gilberto have an affair?

    A. Newspapers at the time reported they did, but frankly it’s none of our business. Astrud herself tiptoes around the subject, having split with João Gilberto after the recording of “Getz/Gilberto” in her writing she simply talks about how hard it was on the road with Getz and a young child. Since it is still written about, I guess it has stuck, true or not.


    In January 1964, they set off on a three-week Canadian tour, taking with them 20-year-old vibraphonist Gary Burton. On Oct. 9, ( João) Gilberto joined Getz and Burton onstage at Carnegie Hall—a performance that resulted in Getz/Gilberto #2, released by Verve in 1966— but by then the saxophonist had begun an affair with Astrud, a pairing that features prominently on the album Getz Au Go Go.

    Downbeat magazine March 2016 (James Hale) p24-28

    I found a detailed write-up by Bob Smith about the Stan Getz, Astrud Gilberto performance at the second Summer Jazz Festival in Vancouver in August 1964. Also a Getz appearance at the Friar’s Tavern in Toronto for two weeks beginning Feb. 17th but no mention of Astrud or anyone else [61]Gerry Barker – In Town and Out – The Tronoto Star – Jan. 14th, 1964.

    Q. Was Astrud a house wife at the time of the recording

    No and Yes(assuming she was in fact married at all at the time!). At the time of the recording, housewife wasn’t the demeaning description it would become later in the 1960’s with the Women’s Liberation movement, it must have hurt as it was inaccurate.

    Despite her relative youth at the time of recording, she was just twenty two, Astrud was regularly introduced and was commonly referred to as João’s wife, and in syndicated newspaper columns at the time, “a housewife”. I easily found 228 general circulation newspaper articles that described her as such. Perhaps the most egregious was the “Evening Sentinel” a regional newspaper in Stoke-Upon Trent in the UK. In the regular Saturday music column “In The Groove”, Alan Jones wrote for the December 16th, 1967 edition from an interview during a UK tour (Note while reading this it helps to imagine Mike Myers in the film Austin Powers)

    “Bossa Nova, butchered five years ago by overzealous exposure, has been given a graceful resurrection by a dishy brunette from Ipanema, the beach district of Brazil’s Rio de Janeiro.”

    “The girl from Ipanema? Who else but Astrud Gilberto, the brunette who sang her way from kitchen sink to the caviare belt with the wistful Bossa Nova melody, “The Girl From Ipanema.”

    “Miss Gilberto is gently riding the frothy crest of the Bossa Nova craze which is sweeping the television commercials, particularly in America.”

    Award winner
    A commercial sung by Miss Gilberto plugging an
    airline company’s holiday flights [Eastern Airlines] won her a coveted advertising award.

    From then on Miss Gilberto’s voice (described as “ the sound of yearning innocence ” or “of hushed intimacy”) started a new trend in the advertising business.

    Soon she was in demand to lend her persuasive vocal chords to beer and toothpaste commercials. Naturally, the rest of the TV commercial-makers followed in a rush.”

    There was so much, so wrong about this article the only thing I can say is “Yeah baby!“.

    On the sleeve notes for the album Gene Lees writes “The girl’s voice that you hear on the album is that of Astrud, Joao’s wife, a sweet, quiet girl who is herself a composer—and, of necessity, Joao’s English translator!” – Verve V-8545.

    Scott Yanow writing in the book “All Music Guide to Jazz” [62]Published by Miller Freeman Books, 1998 – ISBN 0-87930-530-4 describes Astrud repeatedly as a “housewife”. Imagine being compared to your peers thus:

    Abbey Lincoln interpreted dramatic lyrics under the tutelage of Max Roach, Betty Carter stretched the boundaries of scat singing and a housewife named Astrud Gilberto cooed “The Girl From Ipanema.”

    Scott Yanow, “All Music Guide To Jazz” – 1998. Page 1241.

    Stan Getz was interviewed in a 1964 Jazz Professional magazine as saying “she was just a housewife” [63] Given João wasn’t fluid in English, it is easy to understand how the term housewife came about and how it stuck, it was easy and lazy to just report what Getz had said.

    Equally Getz had a habit of characterizing people and organizations. He once said of the Daughters of The American Revolution was “an organization run by old ladies and cripples” [64] Clearly controversial for the sake of it.

    Before flying to New York for the recording, assuming Astrud was in fact married to João, she wasn’t a housewife in any traditional sense of a home maker, rearing children etc. They had a much more relaxed musician, bohemian lifestyle. America has always had problems with things they can’t label and essentially put in a box. Thus Astrud became a “housewife”.

    Was the music business institutionally sexist then? Yes. Is it now? Probably. Given the recent experiences of Taylor Swift. Is it misogynistic? In abstract, yes. The music business is simply a reflection of the society it serves. It is much more exploitative than simply misogynistic. It was born from and still mostly is a paternalistic, male-dominated industry. However, it has always exploited those with musical skills, irrespective of race, origin, sex, or color.

    It’s important to remember that women were only included in the “Civil Rights Act” in 1964 as an attempt to cause the bill to fail [65] The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), which was designed to guarantee protection against sexual discrimination for women under the law, only passed both houses of Congress in 1972 but has never achieved the status of constitutional amendment [66] Like it or not, women are still disadvantaged under the law in the USA in 2024.

    Getz and Astrud Gilberto in Berlin 1966

    As John Wilson noted in his NY TImes 1981 interview, Astrud touring changed, her appearances in the USA also tailed off, mostly because Gilberto preferred concerts to clubs. [67]

    I suspect this mostly stemmed from the way her appearances were reviewed by jazz critics. I’ve read dozens, and few are just complementary, many follow a similar line to William Littler, writing in the Vancouver Sun about the Getz/Gilberto performance at the Summer Jazz Festival, he said “Mrs. Gilberto achieved the unique distinction of sounding artful despite the artlessness of her singing style and projecting an almost haunting lingering quality with a voice whose tone is actually quite pale.” – damned by faint praise indeed.

    Here is a review from the July 1964 issue of High-Fidelity magazine, it appears on page-81, juxtaposed to Louis Armstrong’s “Hello Dolly” album review.

    Gilberto’s wife, Astrud, sings briefly and none too effectively- making one wish for the return of Maria Toledo, who sang beautifully in similar circumstances with Getz and Luis Bonfa on “Jazz Samba Encore”
    ( Verve 8523 ).

    High-Fidelity Magazine – July 1964 – page-81

    As Creed Taylor would say, if critics were not critical, they wouldn’t have a job.

    In October 1970, Astrud made an appearance on the Ed Sullivan show, she performed a “Bossa Nova Hits Medley” effectively marking peak Astrud Gilberto. [68]


    Stan Getz, born Stanley Gayetski on February 2, 1927, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was an American jazz saxophonist. His warm, lyrical tone earned him the nickname “The Sound.” Influenced by Lester Young, he rose to prominence in the late 1940s with Woody Herman’s big band. Getz played bebop and cool jazz, but his impact extended beyond genres. He recorded his first album in 1943.

    In 1961, Getz returned from several years in Copenhagen, Denmark, where he had gone to escape his drug problems. On return he was signed by Taylor to Verve on a multi-album deal. Verve had just been bought from Norman Granz by MGM, and MGM had poached Taylor from ABC/Impulse. The first Taylor produced album Getz would record with Bob Brookmeyer on September 12th and 13th, 1961 – rekindling a relationship they’d had together since the early 1950’s with Norman Granz.

    Getz went on to record “Focus” at Webster Hall in 1961, and released in 1962. Taylor had done the same with Josh White, who had escaped to England in the 1950’s to get away from the McCarthy era “red baiting”. Upon his return to the US, White had been signed by Taylor at ABC Paramount [69]

    Cash Box magazine – December 20th, 1960

    The recording had come together after Byrd himself had returned from a spring 1961 diplomatic tour of South America (including Brazil) for the State Department. Byrd bought home with him bossa nova recordings by João Gilberto and Antonio Carlos Jobim. In December 1961 Getz was playing at Byrd’s homebase “The Showboadt Lounge” in Washington D.C. Byrd invited Getz to stay with him. Byrd played the recordings for Getz, who liked what he heard, and the two decided that they wanted to make an album of the songs. It was recorded on February 13th, 1962, in Pierce Hall, All Souls Unitarian Church, Washington [70]note to self, pretty much everything I’ve read says Getz flew down to Washington D.C. – I have though in the back of my mind that Taylor travelled by train. Anyone?

    Getz and Charlie Byrd would appear on the Perry Cuomo Music Hall show broadcast on WRC (Ch.4) in D.C., October 17th, 1962, a month before the Frey organized night of bossa nova at Carnegie Hall.

    When the “Getz/Gilberto” album was recorded on March 18th-19th of 1963, the American market had already caught bossa nova fever. In the same month, Getz had already been in the studio in February for one of a series for his “The Bossa Years” box set. He would go on to recorded with one time Stan Kenton’s Brazilian guitarist Laurindo Almeida on March 21st.

    For those of us who did not know Getz, I only saw him once later in his life. Much of what I understand about Getz comes from Donald L. Maggin’s book “Stan Getz: A Life in Jazz,” originally published in 1996. Based on Maggin’s book and contemporary reviews of Getz, he seemed like a very difficult man who spent a lifetime fighting drugs and fighting with those that loved him. Maggin’s book, though, in many ways seeks to explain Getz by making his actions the responsibility of others.

    In his essay “A Life With Stanley” – Gene Lees described Getz as “the most widely-disliked musician in jazz”. Along with a litany of other difficult and troubling accusations, Lees wrote of Getz treatment of his first wife, Beverly Byrne, who had been a singer with the Stan Kenton Orchestra

    Singer Dave Lambert[Lambert, Hendrick & Ross] was from Boston. So were Beverly Byrne and Buddy Stewart, and they were like his kid sister and brother, and for what Stan did to her, Dave hated him. I knew Dave fairly well, and Bill Crow, who knew him much better than I, confirmed my memory of this.

    Gene Lees Jazzletter – May 1997, Vol. 16 No. 5 [71]Gene Lees Jazzletter – May 1997, Vol. 16 No. 5

    Q. Did Stan Getz buy his Irvington NY mansion “Shadowbrook” with the profits from “Getz/Gilberto”?

    Probably not. Getz made a lot of money from this “Getz/Gilberto” album, both in royalties and in appearance fees and touring as a result of its success. It is fatuous, at best, to claim that Stan bought a “mansion” in upstate New York solely from the proceeds of this recording. At that point, Getz had completed 20 years of work, starting at age-15 with Jack Teagarden. Gene Lees notes that the mansion they bought was largely with money from Stan’s second wife, Monica Silverskiold. Monica came from a distinguished Swedish family. The album wouldn’t have been made without Getz, and who knows what would have happened to bossa nova as a result?

    Monica also notes in the Jake Feinberg interviews(see Further Information) that they bought the house for a steal as no one else wanted a 22-room house in upstate at that time.

    Q. Did Monica Getz produce the “Getz/Gilberto album?

    No, of course not. Monica was persistent to see the album released. Gene Lees, again in his essay “A Life With Stanley” recounts that she could be “amazingly persistent; the only reason I wrote the liner notes for the Getz/Gilberto album is that Monica so bugged me on the telephone to do them that I wrote them in a few minutes and phoned them to her.” [72]Lees was later embarrassed when the liner notes for the album were Grammy Nominated and he felt they were so bad.

    The Hanged Man(Film)

    The August 1st, 1964 issue of Cash Box magazine announced that “Stan Getz and Astrud Gilberto, currently packing them in at Shelly’s Manne Hole, have been signed to sing their hit, “The Girl From Ipanema,” in “The Hanged Man” TV Project 120 two-hour telefilm.” [73]120-minutes = 2-hours geddit? Given the film was shown on TV on November 18th, 1964 and Mardi Gras was on and around February 11th that year, it is safe to assume they had already been filmed even if not as early as February. In the same issue, the “Getz/Gilberto” album was #2 in the top-100 album charts, and #1 in the top-50 stereo chart.

    Montage of credits and scenes from the 1964 made-for-TV film “The Hanged Man”

    In “The Hanged Man,” the “Getz Quartet” and Astrud Gilberto appear in two scenes in a nightclub in New Orleans during Mardi Gras. According to Director Don Siegel [74], the film was actually shot in New Orleans during Mardi Gras, requiring “a lot of people and a lot of money.”

    In his two-page memorandum on the film, he doesn’t mention Getz and Gilberto, and we have no other insight into why or how they were chosen for the scenes [75]A Siegel film : an autobiography by Siegel, Don – Publisher Faber and Faber, 1993 – ISBN 0-571-16270-3.

    It certainly wasn’t for the publicity of the dozen or so newspapers I found that included listing for the film and reviews, only two mentioned Getz/Gilberto.

    The second song Astrud Gilberto sings in “The Hanged Man,” the Brazilian-flavored song “Only Trust Your Heart,” was written by Benny Carter, with lyricist Sammy Cahn. Carter also wrote the score and incidental music for “The Hanged Man.” “Only Trust Your Heart” was also included on the “Getz/Gilberto” live album recorded in New York City on August 19th. Again suggesting at the time of the Cash Box announcement, the film had already been made.

    “Only Trust Your Heart” was issued as the A-side on a Stan Getz/Astrud Gilberto 7″/45RPM, but it was surpassed, as was often the case, by the B-side “The Telephone Song,” when released in early 1965.

    “The Hanged Man” was the second of two films made by Siegel for TV, part of an ambitious NBC / Universal TV project. The first film, “The Killers,” was deemed too violent for TV and was released straight to theaters. “The Hanged Man,” as noted, was shown on November 18th; a third film, “See How They Run,” directed by David Lowell Rich, was shown on October 7th, 1964. The films were something less than successful artistically, took too long to make, and came in over budget [76]As of writing, 17th March, 2024, a number of services list “See How They Run” as available via Apple TV in the USA”. The film is not the same, it is 2003 political documentary .

    While Carter would do the score for “The Hanged Man,” “See How They Run” would be scored by Lalo Schifrin. Siegel would also work with Lalo Schifrin for the scores of six films, although only five were used. If you read my piece on Kai Winding’s “Mondo Cane,” then this was, in essence, the same period, the start of American TV film gangster noir rather than the Italian mondo films.

    Siegel would later make “Invasion of the Body Snatchers, as well as five films with Clint Eastwood including “Dirty Harry” and “Magnum Force”. Reviewed by David Meeker in “Jazz In The Movies” 1917-1977, Meeker described “The Hanged Man” thus

    A rather strained and tiresome thriller set in New Orleans during Mardi Gras: a revamping of Ride the pink horse. In a nightclub sequence Stan Getz impeccably does his Bossa Nova thing.

    Jazz in the movies : a guide to jazz musicians 1917-1977 – David Meeker. Publisher Talisman Books, 1977

    As far as I’m aware “The Hanged Man” was never released on DVD and is not available on any US streaming services. I’ve been looking for a better copy of the film for almost a year. Presented here is a VHS tape bootleg copy.

    I had intended to produce a complete list of film and TV performances in the hope of being able to track an actual concert performance down. This will have to follow at some point.

    More commonly, and much better preserved is the MGM film also from 1964 “Get Yourself A College Girl”. The music stars appearing in this film were absolutely no coincidence. Verve records was a subsidiary of MGM and this was just a teen movie marketing push, remember Clarence Avant?

    Voices Of Vista – The Astrud and Stan Editions

    Office of Economic Opportunity’s Volunteers In Service To America (VISTA) was a domestic program aimed at addressing poverty in America in the mid-1960’s. It issued some 200+ transcription disks, that included interview segments with popular artists of the day. One such artist was Astrud Gilberto. Astrud would have volunteered her time for free; the American Federation of Musicians approved of the program thus allowing the musicians to appear without being paid an appearance fee. The transcription disk sets were inititially sent to some 200 radio stations, later up to 400 for free. They would play the main disks as a 30-minute show.

    The main programs all lasted some 24-minutes and followed an almost exactly the same formula. Introduction, program promo, artist introduction, artist pre-recorded music track; more promo’, volunteer interview; artist talk, second artist pre-recorded track, promo; final artists interview, final artist pre-recorded track; show ending.

    Here I’ve removed all the promotional material for the Vista program. It really is a good listen with four music tracks. Post production the shows were edited into 4-5 minute segments with a single artist pre-record track; there were also promo only disks which featured 30-second segments.

    [Check back for an update]

    Track Listing: 1. (Take Me To) Aruanda 2. The Shadow Of Your Smile 3. Agua De Beber 4. The Girl From Ipanema

    [Check back for an update]

    I have created a “Voices of Vista” YouTube channel [77] and will start posting edited interviews and full transcription disk recordings on the channel this year. Many, many jazz stars made full programs and for some it is the only opportunity to hear their voice rather than their music.

    Further Information

    As well as archives, including Donald Clarke’s excellent archive of Gene Lee’s Jazz Letters and David Gleason’s outstanding collection of media and music books and magazines, I have referenced a number of books which deal with the subject of Samba, Bossa Nova, and the recordings; they are as follows. For magazine references, I’ve used my own collection of DownBeat. For Cash Box magazines, the Internet Archive.

    • Singers and the Song II – Gene Lees – Published OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1998 – ISBN 0-19-511556-2
    • Making Records: The Scenes Behind the Music – Phil Ramone – Published Hyperion – ISBN: 978-O-7868-6859-9
    • Bossa Nova: The Story of the Brazilian Music That Seduced The World – Ruy Castro – Published by A Capella Books, 2000 – ISBN 1-55652-409-9
    • Queen of bebop : the musical lives of Sarah Vaughan – Hayes, Elaine M – Published HarperCollins, 2017 – ISBN 9780062364685
    • Getz/Gilberto – Bryan McCann – 33 1/3 Brazil – Published by BLOOMSBURY ACADEMIC, 2019 – ISBN: HB: 978-1-5013-2396-6
    • Tom Jobim and the Bossa Nova Era – Suzel Ana Reily – Popular Music Vol. 15, No. 1 (Jan., 1996)
    • Les Tomkins Interviews Stan Getz in London in 1964 > This interview has limited availability for streaming. It is available as a transcript [78] and part-2 [79] It is included as an original audio recording on Stan Getz – Live in London Vol.2 [80]

    Jake Feinberg Show

    The Jake Feinberg show has a number of interviews you might want to listen to. The show episodes are available on many platforms, I’ve listened to them on Spotify, they are linked here. The episodes are general in nature rather than specific to the “Getz/Gilberto” album. I reached out to Jake and he confirmed the interviews were conducted at their Irvington house estate in NY in August 2017.

    You can also hear them on youtube [81]

    Monica Getz – Part-1 >
    Monica Getz – Part-II >
    Monica Getz – Part-III >
    Monica Getz – Part IV >

    Jane Getz > Jazz pianist, session musician. No relation to Stan [82] >


    5, 12, 13, 45 Bossa Nova: The Story of the Brazilian Music That Seduced The World – Ruy Castro – Published by A Capella Books, 2000 – ISBN 1-55652-409-9
    10 The early 1960’s were a boom time for the modern Las Vegas, Ella Fitzgerald, the a Verve artist, as well as Glaser’s artists would make regular appearances in ‘Vegas and films of the era. In 1962, Kirk Kerkorian bought his first stake in Las Vegas, by the end of the 1960’s he would take over MGM. Verve failed to renew Ella Fitzgerald’s contract in 1967.
    15 I didn’t have time to look into why this was, maybe just an error or as I’ll discuss, maybe a necessity?
    19 Verve catalog number 600753418208
    23 Seeburg who also made coffee vending machines, issued millions of dollars of bonds in the 1960’s and declared bankruptcy in 1979. Seeburg was sold to Stern after being broken-up during bankruptcy, Stern itself went bankrupt a few years later. Former employees from Seeburg bought production assets from the Stern bankruptcy and produced one of the first CD Jukeboxes.
    28 Mickey Wallach was a former producer of the Jack Eigen, Sherm Feller, and Kal Ross shows, was by the early ’60s one half of the Wallach-Edwards Productions Inc., essentially freelance record pluggers and promo men
    31 Cash Box magazine – October 10th, 1963 – Page 35
    32, 41 Making Records: The Scenes Behind the Music – Phil Ramone – Published Hyperion – ISBN: 978-O-7868-6859-9
    33, 49 Making Records: The Scenes Behind the Music – Phil Ramone – Published Hyperion ISBN: 978-O-7868-6859-9
    35 Roulette would continue to release Vaughan albums, including the 1963 “The Explosive Side Of Sarah Vaughan” but this was tracks they already had.
    36 There is a very good reason why Taylor might have wanted to do this, his name was Clarence Avant. I’ll come back to Avant sometime in the summer.
    42 Getz/Gilberto – Bryan McCann – 33 1/3 Brazil – Published by BLOOMSBURY ACADEMIC, 2019 – ISBN: HB: 978-1-5013-2396-6
    46, 48
    47, 67
    57 THE INSIDER’S GUIDE TO MAKING MONEY IN THE MUSIC BUSINESS – Jeffrey Brabec and Todd Brabec – Published Schirmer Trade Books, 2018 – ISBN-13: 978-1-7876-0138-3 /
    58 Singers and the Song II – Gene Lees – Published OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1998 – ISBN 0-19-511556-2
    59 there was an earlier disco version by Zakariah (I have no idea…) that came out in London just before Christmas 1975. It was a horn heavy, throbbing, four to the floor disco beat,
    61 Gerry Barker – In Town and Out – The Tronoto Star – Jan. 14th, 1964
    62 Published by Miller Freeman Books, 1998 – ISBN 0-87930-530-4
    70 note to self, pretty much everything I’ve read says Getz flew down to Washington D.C. – I have though in the back of my mind that Taylor travelled by train. Anyone?
    71 Gene Lees Jazzletter – May 1997, Vol. 16 No. 5
    72 Lees was later embarrassed when the liner notes for the album were Grammy Nominated and he felt they were so bad.
    73 120-minutes = 2-hours geddit?
    75 A Siegel film : an autobiography by Siegel, Don – Publisher Faber and Faber, 1993 – ISBN 0-571-16270-3
    76 As of writing, 17th March, 2024, a number of services list “See How They Run” as available via Apple TV in the USA”. The film is not the same, it is 2003 political documentary

    Updates: April 23rd, 2024 – added link to Jake Feinberg Show, Monica Getz Episode IV – Voices of Vista to follow

    2 Replies to “On This Day: Getz/Gilberto”

    1. This was an interesting and incredible post. I had the opportunity to see Stan Getz in Copenhagen in 1980. But my dad had this album in the 1960s, so Bossa Nova was alive and well in Clovis, NM early on. Thanks!

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